Muhammad (Arabic: محمد; c. 570 – 8 June 632),full name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalibibn Hāshim (Arabic: ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابنهاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son ofAbdul-Muttalib son of Hashim), from Mecca, unified Arabia into asingle religious polity under Islam. Believed by Muslims to be aprophet and messenger of God, Muhammad is almost universallyconsidered by Muslims as the last prophet sent by God to mankind.While non-Muslims generally regard Muhammad as the founder ofIslam, Muslims consider him to have restored the unaltered originalmonotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and otherprophets.
Born approximately in 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca,Muhammad was orphaned at an early age; he was raised under the careof his paternal uncle Abu Talib. After his childhood Muhammadprimarily worked as a merchant. Occasionally he would retreat to acave in the mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer;later, at age 40, he reported at this spot, that he was visited byGabriel and received his first revelation from God. Three yearsafter this event Muhammad started preaching these revelationspublicly, proclaiming that “God is One”, that complete “surrender”(lit. islām) to Him is the only way (dīn) acceptable to God, andthat he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the otherprophets in Islam.
Muhammad gained few followers early on, and met hostility fromsome Meccan tribes. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some ofhis followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers in Meccamigrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. Thisevent, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, alsoknown as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribesunder the Constitution of Medina. After eight years of fightingwith the Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslimconverts and marched on the city of Mecca. The attack went largelyuncontested and Muhammad took over the city with little bloodshed.He destroyed the three-hundred and sixty pagan idols at the Kaaba,in the city. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina fromthe Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. Before hisdeath, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, and hehad united Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.
The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. “Sign [of God]”),which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the versesof the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and aroundwhich the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad’steachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and siraliterature, are also upheld by Muslims and used as sources ofIslamic law (see Sharia). While conceptions of Muhammad in medievalChristendom were largely negative, appraisals in modern historyhave been far more favorable. Other appraisals of Muhammadthroughout history, such as those found in medieval China, havealso been positive.
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